Transparency International（TI）was founded in May 1993 through the initiative of Peter Eigen, a former regional director for the World Bank.Founding board members included Eigen, Hansjrg Elshorst, Joe Githongo, Fritz Heimann, Michael Hershman, Kamal Hossain, Dolores L.Espaol, George Moody Stuart, Jerry Parfitt, Jeremy Pope and Frank Vogl.Eigen acted as Chairman and Pope was Managing Director.
In 1995, TI developed the Corruption Perceptions Index（CPI）.The CPI ranked nations on the prevalence of corruption within each country, based upon surveys of business people.The CPI was subsequently published annually.It was criticized for poor methodology and unfair treatment of developing nations, while also being praised for highlighting corruption and embarrassing governments.
In 1999, TI began publishing the Bribe Payers Index（BPI）which ranked nations according to the prevalence that a country’s multinational corporations would offer bribes.
TI is organized as a group of some 100 national chapters, with an international secretariat in Berlin, Germany.Originally founded in Germany in May 1993 as a not-for-profit organization, TI is now an international non-governmental organization, and claims to be moving towards a completely democratic organizational structure.TI says of itself:
“Transparency International is the global civil society organization leading the fight against corruption.It brings people together in a powerful worldwide coalition to end the devastating impact of corruption on men, women and children around the world.TI’s mission is to create change towards a world free of corruption.”
The Transparency International movement consists of many elements: a world-wide network of national chapters, the International Secretariat, the Board of Directors, senior advisors and other volunteers.
Board of Directors’role
The Board of Directors is Transparency International’s central governing body and is elected at the Annual Membership Meeting by accredited national chapters and individual members.
The present chair of the Board of Directors is Huguette Labelle, who holds a Doctor of Philosophy, Education.Huguette Labelle is currently Chancellor of the University of Ottawa, Chair of the Board of Transparency International, member of the Board of the UN Global Compact.
National chapters are independent, locally-established organisations that actively address corruption in their respective countries, implementing their own national programmes as well as agreed global and regional strategies.TI national chapters are also instrumental in shaping the movement’s strategy and policies, and often work together on regional priorities.
A system of chapter accreditation review helps ensure that the quality and integrity of TI’s work remains high around the world.
The national chapters and the International Secretariat work together to tackle corruption.
The International Secretariat’s relationship with chapters is one of mutual support.It focuses on the global and regional fight against corruption, and assists national chapters in enhancing their anti-corruption skills.The Secretariat coordinates initiatives within geographical regions and provides methodological support on the tools and techniques to fight corruption.
The Berlin-based Secretariat also serves as the driving force on international issues such as anti-corruption conventions, and other cross-border initiatives.It serves as a knowledge management centre, capturing and disseminating best practice and developing new approaches to tackle corruption.
Governance of Transparency International
Transparency International is governed by its Charter.Its ultimate decision-making body is an Annual Membership Meeting, which brings together accredited national chapters and individual members, and elects the Board of Directors, TI’s central governing body.
The National Chapter Accreditation and Individual Members Appointment Policy regulate the membership procedure.National chapter guidelines assist National Chapters in setting up or pursuing their operations.
The International Secretariat supports the national chapters and implements the international agenda.An Advisory Council, consisting of prominent individuals of international standing, advises the movement.
Transparency International seeks to provide reliable quantitative diagnostic tools regarding levels of transparency and corruption, both at global and local levels.
Since 1995, TI has issued an annual Corruption Perceptions Index（CPI）.In recent years, TI has sought to develop other corruption measurement tools to complement the CPI.The Bribe Payers' Index（BPI）assesses the supply side of corruption and ranks corruption by source country and industry sector.The Global Corruption Barometer（GCB）is a public opinion survey that assesses the general public’s perception and experience of corruption in more than 60 countries around the world.
Corruption Perceptions Index（CPI）
The annual TI Corruption Perceptions Index（CPI）, first released in 1995, is the best known of TI’s tools.It has been widely credited for putting TI and the issue of corruption on the international policy agenda.The CPI ranks more than 150 countries in terms of perceived levels of corruption, as determined by expert assessments and opinion surveys.
TI’s biggest success has been to put the topic of corruption on the world’s agenda.International Institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund now view corruption as one of the main obstacles for development, whereas prior to the 1990s this topic was not broadly discussed.TI furthermore played a vital role in the introduction of the United Nations Convention against Corruption and the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention.
Bribe Payers Index（BPI）
The TI Bribe Payers Index evaluates the supply side of corruption-the likelihood of firms from the world’s industrialised countries to bribe abroad.
Global Corruption Barometer（GCB）
Transparency International’s Global Corruption Barometer is the only worldwide public opinion survey on views and experiences of corruption.As a poll of the general public, it provides an indicator of how corruption is viewed at national level and how efforts to curb corruption around the world are assessed on the ground.It also provides a measure of people’s experience of corruption in the past year.The 2010 Barometer, the seventh edition, reflects the responses of 91, 781 people in 86 countries, and offers the greatest country coverage to date.
The Global Corruption Report（GCR）
The Global Corruption Report （GCR）is the first comprehensive publication of its kind to explore the corruption risks related to tackling climate change.From international policy-making to national level mitigation and adaptation strategies and with a special focus on the forestry sector, the GCR draws on the expertise of more than 50 experts and practitioners from the anti-corruption movement and the climate change field.
Put Corruption on the Global Agenda
In its short history, Transparency International has broken the taboo against speaking out on corruption, and the world has taken notice.
·Because of TI’s success, corruption now has a place on global, regional and national agendas.
·Prior to 1996, the World Bank did not explicitly discuss corruption.Today, the Bank considers it the single greatest obstacle to economic and social development.
·The United Nations highlights good governance and fighting corruption as key elements in reducing poverty.
·The International Monetary Fund now takes account of corruption’s negative impact on economic performance.
·Political candidates around the world campaign on anti-corruption and good governance platforms.
Played a Vital Role in Anti-Corruption Conventions
Transparency International was one of a handful of civil society organisations involved in drafting two major international agreements that increase governments' ability to cooperate in reducing corruption across borders: the United Nations Convention against Corruption and the African Union Convention on Preventing and Combating Corruption.It was also closely involved in establishing the OECD’s Anti-Bribery Convention.
Raised Standards in Public life
Through TI’s work, new standards in public life have come to define certain behaviours as corrupt, such as the improper acceptance of gifts and conflicts of interest, not previously seen as corrupt.These higher standards of behaviour have redefined what the public considers corrupt, reducing tolerance for behaviour that ruins lives.